August 2001. I will be in Kosovo, Macedonia,
Albania, Serbia, Slovenia again, until the middle of
THE BEGINNING ESSAY FROM THE EASTERN EUROPEAN WEB
BOOK, PART I.
Albania, Bulgaria, Bosnia, Croatia, Czech Republic, East Germany, Hungary,
Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Yugoslavia.
Voyvodina, Kosovo, Moldavia, Montenegro. Armenia, Belarus, Chechnya,
Estonia, Georgia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine. Gypsies, Ustashi, Holocaust,
Milosovic, Karadicz, Kings and Queens, Genocide, Revolution . . .
Eastern Europe? Central Europe? East Central Europe? Southwestern Europe?
Southeastern Europe? The Balkans? What name shall we use? The
"groupings" are illusive and changing - based on myth, tradition, dreams,
treaties, geography, trade-offs, history, symbols, perceptions, prejudice,
power politics, arrogance, ignorance, and HOPE. The concepts of "Balkans"
and "southern" bring erroneous or incomplete images of unique civil wars,
hatred, barbarism, primitive, poor, irredeemable. The concept of "central"
brings the same erroneous or incomplete images of unique civilized, developed,
"western" values. Is it any wonder that the nations bordering the "western"
and "civilized" nations such as Germany and Austria exert enormous effort
to link themselves to them and distance themselves from "the other." Is
"it" a region? What is "it." The reader will need to make his/her
own distinctions. Whatever else, the "civilized" nations of the world
in the 20th Century have treated this area with disdain, indifference,
frustration, and reacted with ignorance, hubris, cruelty, and
For 30 years, I have spent large chunks of time in this area, in all
of the countries, making friends (and enemies), driving into every large
city and small hamlet, listening - and caring. I have spent considerable
time being "interviewed" by the secret police of each nation that had them
- because it was always assumed that I must be either Jewish or a CIA agent.
What I was was a human being intrigued, perplexed by the beauty, cultures,
complexity, talents, cruelty, myths, courage, suffering, strength, dreams,
yearnings, of people, personalities, in an area of the world that had always
been powerless and faced with the kind of CHOICELESS CHOICES that few
Americans could understand. Small countries hemmed in on all sides
by big bullies whose interests could always be imposed. Small countries
surrounded by danger and enemies. Human beings, like us, who have the same
needs for recognition, stability, a better future for their children, community,
and food and clothing and shelter.
Primarily for Netscape
None of the following may be reproduced in any manner.
ALERT: I LEAVE THIS SITE AS A COMPLEX AND
DETAILED HISTORY OF THESE COUNTRIES DURING THE "YEARS OF CRISIS" FROM 1989.
MANY OF THE SITES ARE LONG GONE. I HAVE "UNCONNECTED" THE DEAD
SITES. A surprising number of Bosnia sites remain vividly on line.
Most of the Milosevic-backed Yugoslavia sites are down (and there were
many). BUT READING THROUGH THE INFORMATION REMINDS ONE OR INTRODUCES ONE
CLEARLY TO THE LAST 10 YEARS OF STRUGGLE. Also, I have
left all my comments and essays as they were at the time. I did not change
my analyses to be current or correct.
FOR STUDENTS IN MY EASTERN EUROPEAN COURSE, HISTORY
9, WHO SELECT THESE COUNTRIES FOR THEIR CASE STUDIES, I ASK THAT YOU ALSO
USE THE REGIONAL INFORMATION IN THE PREVIOUS WEBSITE, EASTERN EUROPE, AND
SEARCH IN GOOGLE FOR WHAT ELSE YOU NEED. The activities in these countries
are "active." They are on the news constantly. Thus, you should
do the searches for material, not me!
US State Department - Use all the
of State's Trip to Bosnia, Croatia, etc.
ALERT: Radio Free
THE KEY: To understanding Eastern Europe on a
regular basis. Students MUST read this site once a week and go through
for research. Outstanding daily press releases, Radio Free Europe
interviews of Eastern European leaders and their biographies and speeches,
outstanding Special Reports and Special Analyses, quotes of the week. The
single most important site.
Balkan Media &
Old reporting source. But an interesting story from the war in
EuroDocs: Western European
Primary Historical Documents
Range of German Documents in English translation.
Conference - Original Source
SPECIAL ESSAYS ON SPECIAL TOPICS - Students 1998
The Expansion of NATO
and the Continuation of Support for Bosnia.
Indifference as a National Pastime: The Bosnian Dilemma
The West in Former
Yugoslavia: Indifference or Stupidity
MAJOR NEWS SOURCES
Each country publishes electronic news magazines that are excellent resources.
Use all the Web news sites out there.
NEW FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF
PEACE IN OUR TIME?: BOSNIA AND THE OLD YUGOSLAVIA
THE CHALLENGE: Keeping "OUR SOULS TERRIBLY SURPRISED" as Emily
Dickinson would have asked.
MY JOURNEY OF 30 YEARS:
a two edged sword: with the complexity of simplicity and the
simplicity of complexity
A HORRIBLE EXAMPLE OF THE THE KILLING MISUSE OF HISTORY
An Interactive Newsmagazine: VERY SPECIAL SITE
TIME-Magazine-type SUPER SITE. Professionally done
- in design, width, depth, and in the journalism, outlook, vision. Published
"constantly." July 30 edition holds the following lead articles: "Smith:
UNWithheld Air Power Against Serbs at Srebrenica"; "Smith Blames Politics
for Lack of Arrests of Bosnian War Criminals"; "Mostar Croats, Angry Over
Vote, Refuse to Halt City Council Boycott"; "Witness Says Tadic Not Present
at Prison Castration of Moslem"; "Bosnian Serbs to Press for Izetbegovic
Indictment." Its archives are deep. July's for example is a 5-page affair.
The extra feature Journal is first rate. The travel section is UNIQUE. Keep
this by your "bedside," along with "Balkan Median and Policy Monitor." Every
article is followed by many follow-up sources.
Bosnian Virtual Fieldtrip: A SPECIAL SITE
Faces of Sorrow: Agony in the Former Yugoslavia - A SPECIAL PLACE
This wrenching exhibition is brilliantly conceived, creatively produced,
and should be seen by everyone studying this area or the issues of human
abuse. The six sections: Ethnic Cleansing, Combatants, Prisoners, Siege of
Sarajevo, Refugees, and Faces of Rape. It offers "indisputable pictorial
witness to the searing effects of man's inhumanity to mankind. The more than
50 photographs by 36 photojournalists from 14 countries depict unspeakable
acts of destruction." As valuable is the bibliography of news articles and
reports which can be secured with a click. Important are the Reuters News
bits on Bihac, Mostar, Srebrenica, and reporting on the horrible conditions
and torture in the detention and concentration camps.
The stumbling decision side of Srebrenica.
Ambassador: A SPECIAL ARTICLE
to the BBC: A SPECIAL EFFORT
"During that period, the BBC...failed to provide
credible and independent coverage of the events in former Yugoslavia." Strong
and courageous letter sent to the heads of the BBC.
NYTimes Bosnia: Uncertain Paths
to Peace: A SPECIAL PLACE
Mesmerizing journey. Interactive photo essay, discussion forums by experts,
maps, whos who, et. al. Probaby all students should visit.
Men of the Year: The Time Men of the Year - A SPECIAL 20TH CENTURY
For 20th Century Europe, these in-depth articles are invaluable. From
1931. If I wanted to begin or to brush up on the history of the world from
1931 to today, I would read every one of these (I have). Few realize that
most of the annual article is about the issues in the world for that year,
not about the man or (the woman?-Wallace Simpson). Time writers are not always
right, but it is fascinating to watch their predictions. Hitler was Man of
the Year and Stalin was twice, for example. To understand the Balkans today,
read about the oil crisis, another for example. The traiter Laval in 31,
Hitler in 38, Stalin in 39 and 42, Adenauer in 53, the Hungarian Freedom
Fighters in 56, Khrushchev in 57, Willy Brandt in 70, Gorbechev in 87, Churchill
and Bosnia: The Institution That Saw No Evil: A SPECIAL
Went Wrong in Bosnia? A SPECIAL THOUGHT PIECE
By the philanthropist, George Soros, who is doing
so much to help in former Yugoslavia. While I disagree with two of his precepts,
his statement is so eloquent that it needs to be termed
New York Times: A SPECIAL CONCENTRATED
Special concentration and effort. Anyone can participate
in the forums. Simply get your password for free and move in.
Forums: "A major component of "Bosnia: Uncertain Paths to Peace"
was the opportunity for international dialogue. The forums remained active
for more than two months and attracted thousands of postings, some thoughtful,
some vituperative. They were based on a computer-generated interface that
cannot be archived in full, but here are highlights, along with biographies
of the hosts."
WHERE IS BOSNIA/HERZEGOVINA? MAPS, BASIC FACTS
Europa Briefing: Bosnia-H Summary
Maps of Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina
A wonderful Net access. Just click on any place
from hundreds of listings, and presto, you are there. Keep this on top when
you are studying this issue. Once there, you can move with an arrow all over
and Herzegovina: PBS Online Backgrounders
From the 1995 CIA World Factbook. Geography, people,
government, economy, transportation, communication, defense, update on current
Things You Should Know About Bosnia
Careful about this text of a flyer.
BOSNIA'S AND FORMER YUGOSLAVIA'S PAST
Bosnia Crisis of 1908
Brief summary of complicated situation.
Bosnian Church: A New Interpretation
Embassy: The Historical Review
Short history of Bosnia.
Flashback: The Balkan Crisis
Exceptional opportunity from Atlantic Magazine. After a thoughtful analysis
of the Balkan Crisis, Atlantic goes to its vaults and presents articles starting
back in 1913, then again in 1960s.
Balkans: A brief History
Excellent brief summary and history. Particularly important in clarifying
the 1st and 2nd Balkan wars, then WWI and WWII.
Strange page with many technical difficulties. If
you want to listen to about 15 speeches and see about 20 photos of Tito with
nothing else, brave the long download.
THE WAR AND ITS
Main Menu: NY Times Photo Essay
History of Bosnia-Herzegovina
I intended to write a brief essay on the history
of BH. But Riedlmayer does it better in ten pages than I could. Written in
1993 so slightly dated. Students should BEGIN here.
Wild East: What Europe did not Understand
the War Started
By Nalini Lasiewicz who reprints this essay from
Alan Fogelquist's book, "The Break-up of Yugoslavis," 1993.
Lesson From the Former Yugoslavia
"Mediterranean Quarterly," Fall 1994. This article is solidly scholarly,
well-researched and reasoned. The reason I include it here is it is a stunning
example of UNREALITY. One cannot quarrel with the article is one believes
in the old rules dating back to the 18th and 19th Centuries. Rules that said
that the Great Powers can and must decide the fate of the independence and
boundaries of small states. Rules that said that people existing under the
heavy yoke of oppressors should be allowed to build a new nation or reconstitute
their old one only if the Great Powers say yes.
Nora Belloff - Wars for Successinon
Author unknown. Two rape campaigns. Why the systematic
rape of women? Ethnic cleansing doesn't need rape. As important, how Europe
raped Bosnia - the "story of diplomatic blundering of the most awesome
Steering Clear of Balkan Shoals
George Kenny, "The Nation," Aug. 1996. The man who resigned from the State
Department in 1992 to protest Bush Administration policy. Wanted America
to intervene. Now he's changed his mind. He blames everyone.
AND ALWAYS SIEGES,
DESECRATION, DEATH OF TOWNS AND CITIES
"Philadelphia Inquirer": The Story of Srebrenica and the Missing Men
In a series of sensitve articles, the reporter interviewed many women
who survived the Srebrenica destruction. The women and children were rounded
up and driven away. Later they went to Tuzla where they live today as refugees.
No one knows of the fate of their men. The International Red Cross estimates
that as many as 8000 men are missing. Reporter Fawn Vrazo writes here of
the stories of the fathers, sons, husbands, brothers, uncles, nephews, boyfriends
who have disappeared without a trace.
In April 1992, the long siege of Srebrenica began, and it would last more
than 3 years, largely unnoticed while world attention focused on the siege
of Sarajevo. Jewel on Bosnia's east side, a famous health center, thick forests,
fine hunting grounds, 75 % non-fundamentalist Muslim. For three years, meals
consisted mainly of humanitarian aid beans, bread, or rice. The Serbs crushed
the residents by poverty and hunger. Serbs allowed only 1 convoy of relief
food in each month for 42,000 people.. Even the UN troups had no fresh food
and no gasoline.
Srebrenica: A Chronicle of Suffering
Intense sources: text, audio, video.
Srebrenica: A History of Events
Step by step, of the safe haven, siege, fall, massacre.
Site presents this destroyed city from 1991 - as
though it were still alive. After my "visit" last year, it is like a surrealistic
painting of facts, songs, tales, pictures - calling it a "lovely
Tuzla Home Page
A destroyed and proud city places its story, history, pictures of the
lost town, pictures of the destruction, and its courage on the Net.
Mayor of Tuzla Condemnation of UN
Speech, May 25, 1995 to UN Security Council (in form of a letter?).
Devastating critique. "If after this terrible crime you again stay silent,...then
without any doubt you stay on the side of the evil, darkness and fascism....For
the sake of the God and humanity use the force finally." [ Writes again after
another attack within 24 hours of first one: "The citizens of Tuzla have
nothing to say to you. The civilisation of the 20th century has nothing to
say... you are quietly watching the killing of the innocent people."
AND ALWAYS THE
REFUGEES, THE MISSING, THE HOMELESS AND THOSE IN NEED
in Bosnia: Refugees in Zenica
Be careful with the facts and
Day in the Life of a Refugee
Serbian refugee camp.
By Applied Computing Solutions. Facilitates task
of finding lost relatives, friends, family or other displaced persons from
the war torn countries of former Yugoslavia. Enter info into database. Refugees
can register. Info maintained for one year. Exceptional service.
THE TORTURE AND MASSACRE
Witness to the Massacres
Remarkable effort, remarkable site. Contains
in Bosnia: Massacre Hill - Bosnia's Killing Fields
The Missing Men of Srebrenica
David Rohde did careful investigation, unauthorized
by the Bosnian Serb authorities, of the missing Muslims (in the thousands)
and his own individual search for the mass graves - which he found. The Serbs
discovered him, arrested and held him for 10 days. Accused of being a spy,
he is fortunate to be alive to win the Pulitzer Prize for his reporting.
Now, he wonders if it meant anything.
of Srebrenica - by Bianca Jagger
Cleansing and Destroyed Islamic Heritage in Pocitelj
Rights Archives and Data on the Genocide in Bosnia : The
Time table, Pulitzer and "Philadelphia Inquirer"
articles, raklpe as ethnic cleansing weapon, fall of Srebrenica. Page done
"to commemorate massacre of approximately 8000 Muslim men and boys, which
occured from July 12 through July 18 (1995) after the Serb nationalist forces
entered the UN designated 'safe haven' of Srebrenica."
of Muslims in Srebrenica
the Latent Function of Ethnic Cleansing in Bosnia
& Zepa: The God-Awful Stories
Bosnia: Father Tells Tribunal of Delivering Son to Tadic for Fatal
Go to archive at bottom of page.
Evil at Omarska
Incredible sources in the Berserkistan Archives.
The following articles plus many others are available but you will
have to search the archives. They are
to the bottom of the page.
Berserkistan in Bosnia: Bosnia's Kids
Berserkistan in Bosnia: Sarajevo's "Terminator"
Berserkistan in Bosnia: To Save A Boy's Leg
Road Trip: Aid to Deprived Children
Amazing projects, creative, intense, to assist children
in Yugoslavia - from clowns to meals.
Incredible sources in the Berserkistan Archives.
The following articles plus many others are available but you will
have to search the archives. They are
to the bottom of the page.
Berserkistan in Bosnia: Muslim Women Protest Missing Persons
Berserkistan in Bosnia: Srebrenica Victim Graves Probed at Brnica
Look for mass graves of Moslems missing from the Srebrenica horror.
Berserkistan in Bosnia: Tortured, Raped Women Can Sue Karadzic
June 96. Based on 200-year-old law.
Berserkistan in Bosnia: Tribunal Hears of Rape as Ethnic Cleansing
July 96. Young girls systematically raped, tribunal judges hear. Systematic
nature of the rapes - premediated policy.
Compile Mass Rape Allegations
organizations in Belgrade, Zagreb
Remarkable organization of a remarkable group of unbelievably, consistently
courageous women. What they are doing is stunning.
Women for Women in
The inter-faith non-profit organization attempting to work with the 60,000
Bosnian and Croatian women and children genocidally raped in the systematic
plan to dehumanize and demoralize the civilian population. 1.5 million women
and children have fled their homes and villages, and most now live in overcrowded
and primitive refugee camps. This organization helps you support a woman
in the camps and to write to the person you sponsor. PS. These pages
Women In Black,
Belgrade, Announcement and Dayton Agreement
Women of Bosnia - Wounded Souls
By Zafar Siddiqui. The title says it all.
THE SICK AND DYING
Berserkistan in Bosnia:
Lost Souls - At Zavod Mental Institution
OTHER LIVING CREATURES
Needed by Bosnian horses.
A STRUGGLE TO SURVIVE
Survival Guide - use archives
I was given a sheet like this one when I went last into Bosnia. It was
momentarily unnerving. But then so was the heavy flakjacket all were required
to wear. It was summertime and weighed a ton. Take a look.
Bosnia's Hidden Killers
YES - ALWAYS
A REBUILDING OF CULTURAL, INTELLECTUAL, DAILY LIFE AND HERITAGE
for Bosnia's Lost Cultural Treasures - Use Archives
Students who fled their war-torn country face new challenges abroad. May
95 article from "Chronicle of Higher Education." Factual report.
Culture, Academia and Daily Life
Excellent source on a very important subject.
Resistance, and Ethnic Cleansing
Sarajevo's rubble contains more than the ordinary atrocities of war. "Rubble
in BH signifies nationalist extremists hard at work to eliminate living beings,
living cities, AND living memories of the past. Targets are libraries, archives,
museums, univeristies, academies, historic districts, cemeteries, and places
of workship - to destroy "evidence of a successfully shared past."
OEM 2/95: Three Forgotton Universities
The situation of Bosnian students. Mostar U was cut into two parts. Tuzla
U has been forgotten. 80% of the infrastructure and equipment of the Univ.
Sarajevo damaged or destroyed. 41% of the students have lost a close relative.
Every second family "had to bear sufferings from concentration camps, rape
or wounding. 87 % of the Bosnian refugee students have no contact with their
parents." Here is how to help.
System in Bosnia-Herzegovina
Analysis, history, current conditions in Bosnia's 4 universities.
Save What is Left - Art in Bosnia
"The Independent" (London) 4/20/95. So much of the art, books, mosques,
National Library was destroyed. "But a few souls battle on to save their
THE QUESTION: WHERE IS GOD?
Bosnia's Tragedy, Equivocation Means Death
To Bear Witness: An Ecumenical Gathering for the Dead and the Suffering
Sponsored by the US Holocaust Memorial Council, with the speeches and
prayers of clergy from the Catholic, Jewish, Orthodox, Baptist, Hindu and
Sikh faiths. Includes speach by the Director of the US Holocaust Memorial
Museum and the Chairman of the US Holocaust Memorial Council. Also the formal
statement of the Council. Very moving.
THE WAR CRIMES
Court TV Casefiles:
The Bosnia War Crimes Tribunal
Includes all the reports from Court TV and the american Lawyer Media,
the indictments and other court documents, the Dayton Peace Accord, State
Department policy briefings, and a look back at Nuremberg.
War Criminals/Suspects - in the Bosnian Conflict
12 pages of briefs, lists of perpetrators including Milosevic, Karadzic,
Mladic; all the indictments and accusations
UN Commission of Experts' on Former Yugoslavia
Established 1992 by UN Security Council after UN resolution on war crimes
in Yugoslavia in response to "credible reports of atrocities in the former
Yugoslavia on a scale not seen in Europe since the Nazi era. Worked through
April 94. Final report contained here. It must be a million pages long. But
pull up the Table of Contents, then go to the Substantive Findings and the
General Conclusions and Recommendations. If you need graphic details, go
to the sections on crimes against humanites and genocide.
UN International Criminal Tribunal
Press releases, case files, rules of procedure and evidence, manual,
documents, commentaries. Contains the full indictments of all the charged.
OF THE PEACE?
of September 8, 1995 Geneva Agreement
Balkan Media &
Policy Monitor: Special Thematic Issue on Bosnia
The Elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Going back to all articles since
June and moving on the events to Aug. 20, 96, BMPM provides an exceptionally
deep analysis. Of course, the pros and cons of whether flawed elections should
be held before the Dayton Accord is implemented (and two of its major provisions
were not at that time) is addressed. BMPM should be read periodically for
the Balkan area.
Beyond the Pale: Perspectives From the Two Serbias
David Binder, "Mediterranean Quarterly," Spring 96. Peace won't hold without
CNN - Bosnia - Mission:
CNN's special series on THE BALKAN TRAGEDY deserves applause. Roots of
the Balkan Troubles: a hisory of ethnic skirmishes. The Balkan Players: Who
are they and what do they want? With Independence Came War: recent events
in the Balkans. Daily Reports on the Balkan Conflict - Archives.
Peace Agreement Summary: Online Backgrounders, PBS
Six page summary from PBS.
Speech to CSCE Conference - Dec. 16, 1995.
for Bosnia By Susan Sontag
Principles: Critique of the Geneva Principles
Geneva, Sept. 1995. Holbrook and Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian foreign ministers
agree to set of principles to guide the Dayton meetings. Principles violate
5 basic tenets of international law. Thus enormous problems for future.
OF PROPAGANDA AND MEDIA?
An Analysis of Germany's Yugoslav Policy
Nora Beloff, May, 92. One-minded, anti-German polemic - but with somewhat
Journalists at War: Media
Coverage of Post-Cold War Conflicts
By the London International Research Exchange, focusing primarily on Bosnia,
a study of basic questions about the media and the war. Who decides which
target is covered? The causes of conflict. Does the media make foreign policy?
Should we blame the messengers?
the BBC: A SPECIAL EFFORT
"During that period, the BBC...failed to provide credible and independent
coverage of the events in former Yugoslavia." Strong and courageous letter
sent to the heads of the BBC.
A. Vukovic, July 94. Skewed but clever with some truth. "Sarajevo is a
city defined by people who do not live in it...the strangest city in the
entire world." European journalists as cheerleaders who root for one of the
gladiators. Their reporting - "a catastrophic debacle. From the War of Success
By Lee Bryant from "Casablanca." Critic of the media presentation of war
which had such deadly effect. 1) the conflict as a generalised bloodletting
between equally sinful warring factions. 2) all sides are guilty. 3) all
people are victims. Result - confusion, paralysis in decision-making and
action. Excellent article.
Most of these come from the first source, "Bosnia." Rather than categorize
them, I simply list them for your reading pleasure.
Comparisons: Citing from Shirer's "Rise and Fall of Third Reich."
to Bosnia Than Ethnic Hatreds
of Srpska: Bastion of Hate
Chief Painted as Warmonger by Ex-Aide
Statement on Bosnia
Margaret Thatcher: "The Serb is the aggressor. The Bosnians are the victim.
We would not deny them the fundamental right of self defence. I doubt the
legality of doing it....The UN are not peacekeeping. There is no peace to
keep...We have the weapons. We have the quality, the number...They are not
being used to protect the innocent."
World of Radovan Karadzic
Balkan Media &
Links for Bosnia
Hodgepage is a surprise GEM. Articles, interviews, letters are excellent
source. At end, the information resources list is an uncommingly good source.
Someone has done a superior job.
Country Summary Briefings
Excellent current risk analyses in brief.
Former Yugoslavia in
Covering Bosnia, Croatia, Macedonia, Slovenia, Yugoslavia, this major
source has great sites but - doesn't seem to have been updated in the past
year. It just stops.
Online NewsHour: Public
Outstanding source of news, essays, background reports, interviews on
eastern and western Europe. Recent material of value on Bosnia, Serbia, Russia,
Nazi Germany, NeoNazism
This Week in Bosnia-Hercegovina:
The Bosnia Action Coalition Project - VERY CURRENT
A weekly news summary with history, politics, and, of course, suffering.
Good source list for articles.
and Herzegovina: The 18 Page Navigator
How they did it I don't know. But here is a mass of information of every
conceivable subject from History to geology, from business to communication.
Current news, economics, environment, geography, health, language, law,
of Bosnia Homepage
Although very slow to load, this foundation is worth the effort. Evidently
founded by students at Haverford, it works for a "culturally pluralistic,
multi-religious Bosnia." Its greatest contribution are the pages, information
on, and efforts toward countering the cultural cleansing and terrible destruction
List of World Wide
Web and other Internet Resources in and about Bosnia
Resources on the Internet
Fine and thoughtful.
ORGANIZATIONS & SITES
U.S. Policy in Bosnia
Official State Department Site with the usual speeches, testimony, texts
of Dayton peace accords, briefings, fact sheets.
United Nations Headquarters Homepage
THE NEW FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF
SERBIA, MONTENEGO, KOSOVO, VOJVODINA
Who are these Serbs? Branded by some as Europe's new Nazis, they are seen
by others - and by themselves - as the innocent victims of nationalist aggression
and of an implacably hostile world media. From all the time and years
I have spent in Yugoslavia, I find that neither image is true.
Additionally, I also know without qualification that a Serb is
not a Serb is not a Serb. There are all "kinds" of Serbs. To
understand, one needs to explore the great epics of its past to the dreadful
present on the battlefields of Bosnia and on the steaming, dreadful streets
of Kosovo. It was Slobodan Milosevic who used a version of the history
of Serbdom to drive or lead or lure (depending on one's version) his people
to nationalist euphoria and an explosion of vicious cruelty and destruction.
There has never been a legitimate excuse for what happened and is
happening. But there are reasons and antecedents. Serbs are human
beings, many of whom whom have lost the vital image of those living
around them as human beings. And that loss created a life loss and
a genocide rampage of the most brutal and basest kind, such as the Western
world has not seen since WWII.
One needs to ask four questions: How could this happen in the midst
of the modernizing European state that produced that genuine, lovely, inspiring
picture of the Sarajevo Olympics? and What will happen next, in the
next year ? and What will this new Yugoslavia and its new neighbor countries
be like in the year 2000? Will they exist? and What role should
the US and the UN play?
Business Europa Briefing: Serbia & Montenegro
What is Bosnia from the Serbian Perspective. Simply an "administrative
unit." This tiresome argument if taken any where would eliminate many, many
nations of the world.
Bosnia-Hercegovina's History By Republika Srpska
Chronicle of a Punishment: Of Yugoslavia
A troubling portrayal.
Dr. Karadicz' Christmas 1995 Message
List of World Wide
Web and other Internet Resources in and about Yugoslavia
Good solid source.
Republika Srpska Home Page
The history of the people on Servian soil has always been turbulent."
Focus on cities, graphics, music, pronunciation files, and everyday life.
Serbian Legacy: Table of Rulers
Serbs of Greater Serbia Find Suffering and Decay
Excellent analysis. Serbian aggression is about an attempt to settle a
fundamental question: where is Serbia? In Kosovo, where the medieval kingdom
was strong? In Bosnia? In Croatia, where Serbs had fled westward from the
Turks? In Krajina? Milosevic has one answer: Serbia lies wherever there are
Slavs: A Selection of Historical Sites
With A Heart - The Yugoslavia Page
This well developed site saddens me so. Until I had gone into its depths
and was relying only on its superficial presentation, I decided it was so
outstanding that I would select it as a special place. And then I probed.
I read it all. Its contents are so disturbing in their effort to deceive
and distort that I cannot even comment.
These are the sites by the intense Serbian sources that have prepared
a full-scale propaganda attack against Croatia - by intricately and constantly
connecting everything today with the Ustasha and Jacenovac during WWII. They
warn over and over again that history repeats itself exactly. It is important
to go here to understand the propaganda that has been fed over fully controlled
media to the Serbian people. One serbian writer I read someplace said, "If
the Klu Klux Klan owned completely all the media in the US for the past five
years, I bet you Americans would have many new fears after that kind of constant
barrage." Here is part of the barrage. In these contents are some good points.
Lately, it seems, a few good points somehow make the theses and conclusions
valid. It reminds me of what I heard in Germany so many years ago. "Hitler
had some good points. Other countries had not been fair to us. Besides he
built roads, ended unemployment, created the Volkswagen." And I have to ask
then as now, "So?"
Democracy in Modern Day Croatia
Collection of articles connecting the present day with the past.
From 1991 to Now: New Independent State Croatia
Talks again of the "third genocide attempt against the Serbs is taking
place today within the borders of the internationally recognized Republic
of Croatia under the leadership of Franjo Tudjman," reminding viewers that
present day state continues exactly the Ustasha state of WWII.
Hiding Genocide: The Balkan Conflict
"The Psychological Strategy Aspects," Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic
Policy, Dec., 1992. The 27-page article begins, "twice before in this Century
there have been well documented attempts by the Croats to destroy the Serbian
people, and to obliterate their culture, religion and memory...there is no
doubt that the genocide against Serbs in Croatia and BH resumed immediately
after Germany forced the European Community, in 1991, into premature
recognition." Half of the article is graphic details of Jasenovac during
WWII. By the Editor-in-Chief of this Journal.
The eternal comparison of the Ustashi to today with a list of articles.
Ten Reasons Krajina Fell So Quickly
Again, equates the WWII war years with 1990s. As "proof," cites from Tudjman,
the remark: "Thank God my wife is neither a Serb nor a Jew!" And then Simon
Wiesenthal's correct observation that "even the Germans were appalled by
the crimes committed in it," referring to Croatia in WWI.
Victims of Jasenovac should be remembered
Milwaukee Journal, June, 1995. Again, the comparison.
Yugoslav Civil War, 1991-1993
By the Serbian-American Affairs Office in WDC. Fairly straightforward
historical summary of the events leading up to the Serbian Uprising from
the Serbian point of view.
MEDIA BIAS IN
Some of the more helpful articles are listed under Media Category. The
following are included to give reader a more "arbitrary" feel for the
"Slaughter" Is Something Other Countries Do
Is the Entire Press Corrupt?
Media Bias in Yugoslav War
News, Advertising or Propaganda
The War in Former Yugoslavia and the American News Media
Article blaming media for labeling Serbia the aggressor. A "peace at any
price" perspective. Blames just about everyone.
Witnesses - Authentic or in the Service of Propaganda
ROLE OF EXTERNAL
AGAIN, the Blame.
Francesca von Habsburg, Archduchess of Austria.
Misha Glenny Condemns US Covert Activity
Nat. Public Radio Interview with Misha Glenny, Aug.95.
Research Center for Crimes against the Serbs
Role of External Powers in the War
Serbhaters: Statements About Serbs
Given by distinguished world intellectuals and politians, listed by alphabet,
six pages. Includes just about everyone.
US "Great Game" in Bosnia
KOSOVO: The Next Ethnic Cleansing
(Written in Fall 1996 and Material on Site is from
that Period). Province of Yugoslavia. In Kosovo, I wonder if
I am going to die on the spot! I have been in a lot of places of grinding
poverty. At one time in Bosnia I was afraid of bombs and land mines. In Kosovo,
I am afraid of disease. The conditions are so dreadful that the Albanians
have nothing to lose by standing up to Serbia, except their lives, and they
believe they are losing anyway. "Where is Serbia," we ask Milosevic. "Anywhere
that Serbs live," he responds. "Well, since Kosovo is 90% Albanian, will
you let those people go?" "No, of course not," he replies, "they are
riffraff." The Albanians will not rest. How long it will take?
The Serbians will not let them go. Who wins? No one. But
it will blow up - taking some of the region with it.
Federal Republic of Yugos.: Truth About Kosovo and Methohija
Belgrade, October 95, Federal Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Measured Kosovo
statement from the Serbian point of view.
Kosova: A Detailed Summary History
Long, detailed article.
And this TERRIBLY
DAMMING PLACE STILL UP: The Kosovo Crisis
A MUST SEE (August 2001). Done in 1998. Almost like someone
forgot to take it down. But it does tell so much of what has been taken
VOJVODINA: Making this Province Pure
"Mr. Milosevic, where is Serbia," we ask. "Serbia is wherever Serbs live,"
he responds. Sir, "Even if they are a minority?" "Well," he ponders, "the
answer is yes, if they are being deprived of rights and harrassed and brutalized
as in Croatia." We ask again, "Does this apply of course to the nasty situation
in Vojvodina for the strong Hungarian minority that is being brutalized.?"
"Of course not," he responds.
Vojvodina, always for me one of the more pleasant places in Tito's Yugoslavia
in the old days. Now fear is in the air and nastiness. My Hungarian friends
who are left are frightened. My "pure" Vojvodinan friends are oblivious.
HOLOCAUST IN YUGOSLAVIA IN WWII
I sat here by myself some years ago at the Memorial Complex. It was always
worse for me than sitting by myself in Treblinka, or Chelmo or the other
killing centers in Poland. Jasenovac was not mechanized. The killing methods
were more "hand to hand." But I have also stood at the edge of the gorges
into which the bodies were thrown. When I returned later after Tudjman was
elected President, I found he had taken steps to make it a "pleasant" place
with no Holocaust memories. My quarrel with the Web presentation about Jasenovac
and the Ustasha is the one-to-one identification that the same exact thing
is happening in Jasenovac again. Poor history but stunning propaganda by
the Serbian groups.
What about the Jews in Croatia? Tudjman has not helped much by refusing
to acknowledge what happened during the war, by writing in his book that
only 25,000 were killed at Jansenovac. Or by deciding to clear the grounds
and make it a rare bird paradise. Or lately by deciding to bring back all
the Croatian dead from WWII including the Ustasha and burying them all together
in Jasenovac as a memorial for all victims of the Germans. He hadn't done
that yet during summer 1995, when I went out and sat there. He was too busy
at the time taking back the Krajina. But I met with the leaders of the Croatian
Jewish community - and they believe they have made headway. The mayor of
Zagreb wrote an essay in the camp memorial book in which he recognizes clearly
what happened to the Jews and apologizes. If this is meant, it means something.
As an indication of how vile things are, in summer ('96), the "great
humanitarian" President of the Bosnian Serbs, indicted as a war criminal,
Karadicz, jumped in and wrote an article on the Net deploring the situation
in Jasenovac and saying the world must never let it happen again! I
was there by myself in the silence and the desecration in summer 97. I
cannot write about it.
Pavelic: Croatian Attila the Hun
Biography of and documents on the Holocaust. Generally accurate. Reinforces
the evidence that the German Nazis and Italian Fascists were shocked at what
was happening. The problem is that in this WWII paper, it says, "the problem
with history is that it tends to repeat itself. Today's Independent State
of Croatia is the copy of the Nazi puppet state of some fifty years ago."
Heavy duty constant propaganda by the Serbs.
Dr. Viktor Gutic's Infamous Speech
Made at a meeting in Sanski Most on May 28, 1941 and published in the
Utashi magazine, May 30, 1941. And again at a Ustashi rally in Banja Luka
and later at a Prnjavor ralley. The Cardinal exhorted the crowd: "Do not
be weak towards anyone...destroy them where you come upon them...the Serbs
are not to hope for anything." Dr Peric, the Franciscan from the Livno manastery
who, from the altary of the monastery church in Gorica, June 1941, urged
the Croats: Brothers Croats, go forth and slaughter all Serbs. First kill
my sister because she is married to a Serb...Then I will hear your confession
and give you communion."
Cardinal Stepinas as Pavelic's Head Military Chaplain
Supposedly half of the concentration campus were headed by Roman Catholic
Articles, Letters of Comparison
WWII atrocities in Croatia as the same as today.
Devils: Who was Who in the Ustaha
of Horror: The Pictures of the Croatian Holocaust
Genocide in Yugoslavia During the Holocaust
Dr. Christopher Browning's article.
and Italian Authors on the Ustashi Genocide
Correctly, military historian, Walter Gorlitz who was in the Nazi government
refers to it as a"terrible military venture of extermination." The Commander
of the Italian "Sasari" division wrote: "the horrors that the Ustashi have
committed over the Serbian small girls is beyond all words." Talks of hundreds
of photographs which he describes of unimaginable torture, after rape. Here
too is the controversial oyster/eyes story.
See and Pavelic's Croatia
The involvement of the Vatican.
WW2: NDH - Independent State of Croatia
Ustasha Movement's summary of articles and documents.
Letter from Prvolsav Grizogono, Feb. 8, 1942
To the Archbishop from a Croatian politicial detailing the horrible things
he had seen and begging for His Holiness to stop them.
XII: Vatican and Ustashe
Extensive book review of the book, "The Vatican's Holocaust," newly reissued
from its 1986 original printing. Reiterates well known involvement, knowledege
of, support of Ustashe by Vatican and Legates. A support that made all the
difference. Had the Vatican disapproved, for example, of the intense revival
of the policy of forced conversions, no priest would have taken part in the
massacres or conversions. This page needs to be read.
Serbs Choose War
Ruth Mitchell, excerpts from her book chapter, "Yugoslavia Finally Dissolves,"
focusing on the events leading up to Germany's attack, the assistance Croatia
gave Germany, the massacres. Includes the damning written protests and appeals
by Croatians against what was happening.
Serbs, Jews and Gypsies to Honor Holocaust Victims of Jasenovac Concentration
In Chicago, April 1995.
Simon Wiesenthal Center: Ustashi Murders in WWII
Figures on populations and deaths for Jews, Gypsies, Serbs. The death
rate for the Gypsies, as we have always known, was almost 100%.
Includes Who's Who, before WWII - and during WWII. Standard, documented
material on the genocide against Serbs, Jews, Gypsies.
Encyclopedia Britannica, 1971. Good quick summary.
The Country that Broke the Stalemate
Ambivalence describes the reaction and views of most Non-Serbs to Croatia.
One fact, however, seems ignored. For better or for worse, it was the Croatians
and their amazing military campaign of Summer 95 that broke the stalemate,
regained the territory, scared the Serbs, and made the Dayton Accord possible.
What that says in reality remains to be seen. Does Croatia bear some
responsibility for the destruction in Bosnia? Yes. Was it also responsible
for making a brokered peace for Bosnia possible? Yes.
From the ashes of former Yugoslavia, the independent Croatian state arose,
the fulfillment, in the words of President Tudjman, of the Croats'
"thousand-year-old dream of independence." Yet few countries in Europe
have been born amid such bitter controversy and bloodshed. The savage
war left about one-third of Croatia in ruins and resulted in the flight of
a quarter of a million of its Serbian minority. Croatia's unique position
on the crossroads of Europe - between Eastern and Western Christendom, the
Mediterranean, and the Balkans and betwee the old Habsburg and Ottoman empires
- has clearly been both a curse and a blessing, inviting the attention of
larger and more powerful neighbors. Its history speaks of vigorous
turbulence and drama.
synopsis begins the Croatian Chapter in the major Web book on Eastern Europe.
Travel there by clicking on Image.
And Its Place in Balkan Power Politics
Macedonia is such a small country, the size of Vermont. And yet it has
played such a role in history. My own pictures in my head are of beauty and
simplicity, art, serenity, awful poverty, and a singular staying power. The
Bulgarians destroyed the Macedonian Jews with Hitler's help during WWII.
The great and small powers have partitioned it. Macedonian nationalists have
assasinated figures they did not like. The last time I sat on the shores
of Lake Ohrid overlooking the border, there was no serenity left. The war
in BH, the results of the UN sanctions, the Greek actions and sanctions have
left this country nearly at bare bones - to say nothing of the assassination
attempt on the President which left him in the hospital for some time. Almost
a year ago, a bomb blew out his right eye, imbedded 3 pieces of shrapnel
in his head, and gave him a brain hemorrhage. Neurosurgeon from the US, France,
Greece flew in to operate. He lived and is back. No one has ever been
It is a complex situation in Macedonia - and the material on this site
shows that well - but the extremes are being reached. And if they are, the
extremist fringes in Macedonia, Greece and Bulgaria may well win - and involve
Turkey also. Again, it is a question of badly-used history taken to the extreme.
I have tried to keep the opposing views separate in the following sites as
much as possible to give the view an opportunity to go to see what basically
are two simple but starkly opposing "theses."
synopsis begins the Macedonian Chapter in the major Web book on Eastern Europe.
Travel there by clicking on image.
The Next Best Thing to Western
Europe - and THEN SOME
This short topic summary begins the Slovenian
Chapter in the major Web book on Eastern Europe. Travel there by clicking