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Western Civilization - and its tantalizing thrusts of Mystery, Majesty, Malevolence, Magnificence, Dynasties, Democracies, Dictatorships - creating enigmas and questions. Its mighty achievements and dismal failures, its frenzies for freedom and its relapses to brutal repression - forma core of Power and Progress. And in that mix of contradictions and complexities, the portion of the world known as Western Civilization remains as a power core of the world. Yet always the understanding, knowledge, sensitivity of ordinary citizens striving to de-emphasize the thousands of years of human abuse. And across the centuries, the clear and consistent enabling ability of ordinary humans to seize upon those recurring moments of challenge and opportunity to exercise extraordinary compassion and courage.
CENTURY BEFORE A GREAT WAR
HITLER'S DEATH CAMPS
The so-called free nations fought WWI to
end the old Congress of Berlin Cabal System and make the world safe for
democracies. The free nations of WESTERN CIVILIZATION fought the Axis powers
in WWII to remove the dreadful propensity of genocide, fascism, human abuse.
During the Cold War, the forces of light saw themselves fighting the forces
of darkness to keep the freedom of spirit alive. And in Eastern Europe, finally
- after so many had died, the West acknowledged that Human Abuse was alive
and well and that the fortunate nations held some strategic if not moral
responsible to intervene. As the 21st Century begins, the resolve is shaky
but evident, the successes hopeful but tenuous.
> The Congress System of the 19th Century which seemed such an anachronism in a 20th Century of Leagues of Nations, UN Nations, NATO, UNICEF is alive and well. But rather than gather the malcontents, mischief makers, havoc raisers to Berlin or Vienna to chastise and command, the Congress leaders gather them to Dayton, Ohio to solve the Yugoslavian question. An interesting change of scenery to a nation that has figured in Great Power Politics for such a short historical time.
UTUBES FOR HISTORY 4C - 1ST PART - FROM THE FRENCH REVOLUTION TO EVE OF WWI:
July 14 1789 - The Storming of the Bastille
The French Revolt and Empire" : A NAPOLEONIC WARS SUMMARY
Louis XVI was officially arrested and sent to prison three days after. France became a republic. He had a trial in front of the Convention which decided to send him to the guillotine in January 1793. He was accused of High Treason and Crimes against the State. On January 21st, 1793 Louis XVI was executed in front of the people of France who saluted his death as the beginning of a better era.
"Charlotte's biography: "Adding to the fervor of the French Revolution, Charlotte Corday followed Queen Marie Antoinette to the guillotine. Because Corday had decided to assassinate Jean-Paul Marat, there is no doubt as to the cause of her demise. While Antoinette was executed for her reputation, Corday was beheaded for committing the act of murder. In the chaos of the Revolution of 1789, atrocities and murder were the constant companion of the French people. However, one murder is particularly interesting because scholars frequently neglect the roles of women, who also contributed to the frenzy. Charlotte Corday was an attractive young woman who shocked the country by murdering a leader of the Paris Commune and Jacobin Party by the name of Jean-Paul Marat. Although she had believed that she was saving France from the ruthless tyrant, she did not realize the futility of her efforts. Corday, a Norman member of the nobility of the sword, was an idealistic romanticist . . . " ! !.
Revolution and After -
- Scholar who had this site retired. But I have left up his ideas. "The revolution in France has captivated the imaginations of historians since it exploded the European landscape two hundred years ago. There are few if any events in European history that are regarded as fundamental to the character of the European world as the giddy, frightening, farcical, and overwhelmingly tragic events during and after the French Revolution. It may be that the event has been grossly overestimated. It was, after all, a complete failure; it ended the monarchy in France, but it ended in a different monarchy so repugnant and violent that the sloppy laziness of the eighteenth century monarchy simply palled in relation to the calculated violence of the years of Napolean's emperorship.
- The ideas of the revolution were not new; in fact, the revolution itself was simply a gathering point, a boiling pot in which ideas of the Enlightenment and the philosophes erupted into a single action. The ideas that originated during the revolution bordered on the farcical. In their efforts to remake society based on individuality and rights, the French reformers insanely went about changing the days of the months and even instituting a church of Reason. In fact, if the cost had not been the loss of thousands of innocent, terrified lives, lives snuffed out at the mere whims of their accusers, the Revolution itself was little more than ludicrous farce played out on the stage of European history.
- But the Revolution was not an innocent affair; like the First World War, its sheer stupidity and ludicrousness got swallowed up in an ocean of blood and a flood of terror. While no event in European history is more important in the eventual formation of the modern state, the Revolutionaries and Napolean to follow also gave birth to modern mass destruction of human life. In sheer volume of lives lost, they are on a par with the violence of the Third Reich in the twentieth century."
"Debate rages over whether the quickness of the execution was humane or not, as many doctors put forward the notion that it could take up to 30 seconds before the victim lost consciousness." "Until the French Revolution, France had no official means of capital punishment. Several popular methods of the time included hanging, often from street lampposts; burning at the stake, which was St Joan of Arc's untimely demise; quartering, execution by tying the condemned to four wild horses and sending them gallopping off in opposite directions (ripping the condemned into quarters); death upon the rack, a slow and merciless death; death by drowning, where the condemned was held underwater for extended periods of time; as well as death by torture. As you can see, the judicial system of France was a kind and benevolent system. One method was used quite often: death by decapitation. Yet at the time, this form of execution was sloppy at best. On many occasions, the executioner's ax missed the neck, and it took several strokes to do the job. Once, the executioner even had to take out his dagger and stab the victim to death."
NAPOLEON: THE LITTLE CORSICAN
Few leaders in history have so captured the imagination of historians. Was he a dedicated genius who brought freedom and laws and civilization to Europe? Or was he, as Eugen Weber recently claimed, "a murderous meglomanic of genius."
Napoleonic Wars - The Armies - Austria, Britain, France, Prussia, Russia. Infantry, cavalry, artillery, manpower. The leading soldiers of all armies.
The Battles of the Napoleonic Wars: A to Z! - Stunning detail and summary, battle by battle.
Napoleonic Wars Series -
Combines all material in "The War Times Journal" which relates to the Napoleonic Wars. Rare archives of personal memoirs and dispatches, articles, summaries, games, books to read
Egypt Conquest (1798 - 1802) - Explains why Napoleon decided to capture Cairo.
The Battle of Austerlitz - Napoleon Leaps to Victory
"It was before dawn on December 2, 1805--the first anniversary of Napoleon's coronation as supreme ruler. The armies of three emperors--Napoleon I of France, Francis I of Austria and Tsar Alexander I of Russia--would meet in the day that followed.. ."
"On the 2nd of December 1805 on the hillocks and valleys east of Brno took place one of the most significant events in European history of the 19th century and at the same time one of the most famous battles of the Napoleon wars - the Battle of Austerlitz. Up until the battles of Borodino and then of Leipzig the Austerlitz massacre was by sheer soldier power and number dead and wounded the bloodiest and biggest conflict of the Napoleon wars."
Peninsular War - 1807-1814
- Goya's Disasters of War
Invasion of Russia - 1812
The Virtual Battle of Borodino - Website allows you to be a part of the Battle of Borodino. You can choose to follow either Napoleon or Kutuzov through the battle to see what happened.
- Kutuzov Versus Napoleon at Borodino
- "Borodino is a village 124 km west of Moscow. On August 26, 1812 it was the scene of the most decisive battle of the 1812 War with Napoleon. It was here that the Russian commander-in-chief, Field Marshal Prince Michael Kutuzov, following the surrender of Smolensk to the French forces took a decision to stage a decisive battle against the Napoleonic army. The outcome of the battle was favorable for the Russian army. Russian troops displayed outstanding gallantry. Russia's army corps commanding generals included such outstanding military commanders as Prince Bagration, Marshal Barclay de Tolly, M. Miloradovich, B. Dokhtarov, M. Platov and others. The Russian army had 104,000 men and 627 guns. The French had 124,000 men and 587 guns. The casualties in the Napoleon's army ran as high as over 50,000 dead and wounded (28,000 killed), the Russian casualty figures stood at 44,000. The Battle of Borodino heralded a crisis in Napoleon's strategy of the General Battle. Napoleon failed in this attempt to totally destroy the Russian army, make Russia surrender, and dictate her peace terms. His forces suffered grave losses while the Russian spirit was enhanced. The battle signalled the beginning of the catastrophe that engulfed the Grand Army. "Photos, extensive sites.
- Why did Napoleon Fail in Russia in 1812? - Good Analysis
- "Napoleon failed to conquer Russia in 1812 for several reasons: faulty logistics, poor discipline, disease, and not the least, the weather. Napoleon's method of warfare was based on rapid concentration of his forces at a key place to destroy his enemy. This boiled down to moving his men as fast as possible to the place they were needed the most. To do this Napoleon would advance his army along several avenues and converging them only when necessary. The slowest part of any army at the time was the supply trains. While a soldier could march 15 - 20 miles a day, a supply wagon was generally limited to about 10 - 12 miles a day. To avoid being slowed down by the trains, Napoleon insisted that his troops live as much as possible off the land. The success of Napoleon time after time in Central Europe against the Prussians and the Austrians proved that his method of warfare worked. However for it to work, the terrain must co-operate. There must be a good road network for his army to advance along several axes and an agricultural base capable of supporting the foraging soldiers."
Battle of Waterloo - 1815
On June 18, 1815, with 30,000 of his men off on a wild goose chase after the Prussians, Napoleon faced Wellington at Waterloo. The battle raged for hours, and Napoleon seemed on the verge of victory. "I've got them," he shouted. "They're ours." Then the Prussians showed up to relieve Wellington, while the 30,000 French reinforcements never arrived. By nightfall Napoleon had gone down to defeat. A broken man, he raced back to Paris in tears. His return to power, the Hundred Days, was over. The Battle of Waterloo is one of the most studied battles in history, and there are numerous theories as to why Napoleon Bonaparte lost. Clearly, the duke of Wellington was a remarkable strategist who possessed much courage, good sense, and willpower. Also, he had excellent field positions and more troops than Napoleon. But even he called Waterloo "a damned nice thing," the British way of saying that it was a close call.
19TH CENTURY CONGRESSES
What Was the Congress of Vienna?
Congress Participants, Issues, Territorial Adjustments, Consequences. "Although the territorial changes brought about by the Congress of Vienna did not endure long in entirety, they represented a practical if not always equitable solution and an attempt at dealing with Europe as an organic whole. The Quadruple Alliance and the Holy Alliance , designed to uphold the decisions of Vienna and to settle disputes and problems by means of conferences, were an important step toward European cooperation. The Concert of Europe which functioned even though imperfectlythrough the 19th cent., may be credited to the Congress of Vienna. An auxiliary accomplishment of the Congress was the adoption of standard rules of diplomacy. Serious defects, however, included the disregard of the growing national aspirations and the social changes that brought about the revolutions of 1848, and the failure to include the Ottoman Empire in the settlement and to deal satisfactorily with the Eastern Question."
Congress of Vienna
Prince Klemens Lothar Wenzel Von Metternich
The wave of political and economic revolts that spread across Europe . There seems to be a strong disposition to those drawing conclusions about the Revolutions of 1848 to stress that they failed. That conclusion is very ahistorical and limited. It all depends, does it not, on what time period one uses to make that judgement. It cannot be made at the end of 1848. The time span is too short. It would be like saying that after Hitler invaded Poland, that WWII was over. In the years following 1848, folks in a range of countries had awakened, learned new ideas, tried to make major changes, learned from the short term "failures." But when judgement in a reasonable context, these revolution contributed mightily to a range of successes.
"The Revolution of 1848 was an international event and, apart from the world wars, the only such event in the West. But it did not affect all of Europe. At least two states - England and Russia, at opposite ends of the continent - remained unscathed. What made these two countries different from the others? The Revolution of 1848 shook those countries in which a bourgeois elite led the opposition against more or less reactionary governments. But Russia had no bourgeoisie and, after the electoral reform of 1832, the English bourgeoisie was no longer in opposition."
See Interesting YouTubes that Add to This Subject
- Internet Modern History Sourcebook -Here are THE sources.
The Industrial Revolution: An Overview
Basic Victorian Web overview includes chronology.
- The Industrial Revolution: Its affects and consequences
- "In the last part of the 18th century, a new revolution gripped the world that we were not ready for. This revolution was not a political one, but it would lead to many implications later in its existance. Neither was this a social or cultural revolution. This revolution was an economic one. The Industrial Revolution, as it know called by historians, changed the ways by how the world produced its goods. It also changed our societies from a mainly agricultural society to one that in which industry and manufacturing was in control." Quick summary.
- Understanding the Industrial Revolution
"WELCOME to Lancashire, the place where the Industrial Revolution began two and a half centuries ago . . ." Proceed!
- The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England
"The Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th centuries was revolutionary because it revolutionized the productive capacity
of England, Europe and United States. But the revolution was something more. More than just new machines, smoke-belching factories,
increased productivity and an increased standard of living. It was a revolution which transformed English, European, American society down to its very roots."
The famous suicidal CHARGE OF THE LIGHT BRIGADE, Florence Nightingale, Yalta, the Black Sea, Sevastopol - hiding the terrible carnage of this nasty war. Another balance of power issue in the 1853-1856 war. England and France feared Russian control of the critical Straits of Bosporus and the possibility of Russian defeat of the despised Ottoman Empire. Turkey declared war against Russia. Ended with the Treaty of Paris with the balance of power restored. So much disagreement among scholars.
Treaty of Paris - Result of it All
"The Treaty of Paris reached in 1856, firmly centered the great burden imposed on the almost lifeless balance of power. Russia was no longer allowed to have their battleships in the Black Sea or in the Straits, which left Russia with a southern border in need of defense. Now Russia was at a disadvantage with the other powers in the Concert of Europe, and no longer motivated to uphold its goals. Communication between the powers had reached a complete stand-still; by the end of treaty negotiations, the goals of the Concert of Europe lay in shattered remnants, and thus, the Concert's function became obsolete.
GENERAL ISSUES AND DEVELOPMENTS
- Age of Power : Marx, the Industrial Revolution, capitalism, entrepreneurs.
- Expansion & Explosion: 1871-1918
- "In 1889 the Eiffel Tower rose nearly one thousand feet into the Parisian sky; in 1912 the ocean liner Titanic, nearly nine hundred feet in length, set out on its maiden voyage to America. Both structures were the wonders of their age, proof of European technological success and expressions of the unusual power that the late nineteenth-century European world had amassed. . . .The long years of relative peace had encouraged many people to assume that in this self-styled "century of progress," a major war was not possible. It also led a few people to a different conclusion: that peace was enervating, productive only of complacency. When the Prussian general Helmuth von Moltke stated in 1880 that 'everlasting peace is a dream, and not even a beautiful one,'he expressed more than his own opinion."
IMPERIALISM FROM 1870 TO WWI
- New Imperialism
- As Cecil Rhodes proclaimed: "I would annex the planets if I could." Detailed outline of imperialism in 19th century Europe with its forceful extension of sovereignty over other peoples.
- Britannia Essay on the Expansion of Europe: Causes, Results
- "One of the most dramatic, morally debatable, and significant activities of the nineteenth-century European social order was its outward movement into a dominant position on several continents and among many islands cast about the earth. Of course, empire was hardly a new institution. It has been a rather constant characteristic of the Western world since well before the days when Roman legions sallied forth to make alien peoples bow beneath standards surmounted by bronze eagles. And even the first years of the nineteenth century were witnesses to Napoleon's effort at surpassing imperial Rome. But never before the end of the century were there so many expressions of imperialism, with rival colonial systems competing in so many areas of the world. Great Britain, France, Holland, Belgium, Italy, Germany, Spain, Portugal, even Russia (not to mention the United States and Japan outside of Europe) intruded forcefully into Africa, or Asia, the Middle East, or the South Pacific--and finally sought the North and South Poles in the early years of this century. As an American senator of the time remarked, the Western world had an acute case of land hunger."
THE "OTHER" COUNTRIES: Prussia, Italy
- The Rise of Germany (Prussia)
- Rise of Prussia - Chronology
- Rise and Unification
- The Unification of Italy
The Franco-Prussian War, was a war in 1870-1871 lost by France to the German states under the leadership of Prussia. The underlying causes of the conflict were the determination of the Prussian statesman Prince Otto Edward Leopold von Bismarck to unify Germany under Prussian control and, as a step toward this goal, to eliminate French influence over Germany. On the other hand, Napoleon III, emperor of France from 1852 to 1870, sought to regain both in France and abroad the prestige lost as a result of numerous diplomatic reverses, particularly those suffered at the hands of Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. In addition, the military strength of Prussia, as revealed in the war with Austria, constituted a threat to French dominance on the continent of Europe.
THE DUAL MONARCHY AND EMPEROR FRANCIS JOSEPH
The beginning of the end or a new wave of empire?
Essays, including history, Poland, physical features, population, religion, government.
THE VICTORIAN AGE and THE INTELLECTUAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENTS
- Karl Marx
Confessions of Karl Marx
Site that has a list of questions, part of a parlor game, in which two of Karl Marx's daughters asked him personal questions.
- Biography of Karl Marx
Extensive and interesting biography regarding the life of Karl Marx.
Victorian Era: 1837 - 1901
- The Victorian Web
Victorian culture and history. Social context, economics, religion, philosophy, literature, the visual arts, science, technology, politics, and gender.
- Queen Victoria's Empire - From PBS
The 1996 spectacular TV 8-hour miniseries. Site summarizes, quotes, excerpts. Every student, everyone interested in WWI, should use this site first. And see the TV series if possible.
What Did We Learn?
"I think we learned a great deal from the Great War. The first point is that as soon as international warfare is launched, nobody can predict the outcome. The second thing is that international war breeds civil war, and civil war is uglier than international war because there are no limits. We also learned that the technology of warfare expands much more rapidly than the capacity of political leaders to control it. And I think the final thing that the First World War taught us is that the easy access of individuals to democratic procedures is very fragile. Warfare suspends democracy. How high a price is victory? That's a question we owe to the First World War. And the question is still with us today."
BATTLEFIELDS AND CAMPAIGNS - AND ARMS AND AMMUNITION
ATROCITIES AND HATRED
PROPAGANDA AND MEDIA - "Tons" of audio, music, on the Great War
And Other Good Posters
COUNTRIES OF WWI - AND THEIR HISTORIES
Albania and WWI
USE THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SEARCH MACHINE AND GO TO ALBANIA.
Then read the following articles (you cannot save the URLs for the articles - they disappear!)
- "Rise of Albanian Nationalisn," and "The Balkan Wars and Creation of Independent Albania."
"National Awakening and the Birth of Albania, 1876-1918."
- "Just Before the War."
- "WWI and its Effects on Albania," and "Albania's Reemergence after WWI."
Austria and WWI
- Atlas: Austria-Hungary
USE THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SEARCH MACHINE AND GO TO AUSTRIA:"The Final Years of the Empire and WWI." Then go on and click to the "Next Pages."
Bulgaria and WWI
USE THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SEARCH MACHINE AND GO TO BULGARIA for:
"The Second Balkan War," Struggle for National Independence to WWI," "San Stefano, Berlin, and Independence." " and "The Soviet Occupation." Then go on and click to the "Next Pages."
Czechoslovakia and WWI
USE THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SEARCH MACHINE AND GO TO CZECHOSLOVAKIA for:
# 30, #31, #58, #71, #102
- The Great War: The French Perception of War
- Historian Stephane Audoin-Rouzeau, France, discusses the french perception of war, birth of modernity, Verdun, trench newspapers, diversions on the Battlefield, Versailles Treaty.
- France in the Great War
- Outstanding page. The causes and effects of the "Great War" on France.
- Verdun, France And then Verdun as THE Battle of France.
USE THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SEARCH MACHINE AND GO TO Germany for:
"World War I."Then go on and click to the "Next Pages."
German Responsibility for the First World War
Describes the German's responsibility for the start of the war and the war's importance, as well as the unfolding of events.
Germany and the War
History Wolfgang Mommsen, University of Dusseldorf, on von Moltke, the Germany Army's advance into Belgium, atrocities, and the Versailles Treaty.
The Turn of the Century - and Germany's Movement to War
Dr. Jay Winter, Cambridge University, comments on a range of WWI subjects centering on Germany.
The Great War and Germany
Dr. Bernd Huppauf, New York University and Germany before the war, the effects of war, Kaiser Wilhelm, the blind war.
Trenches on the Web - Atlas: Great Britain/U.K.
Dr. John Keegan, military historian: the English Officer, Nivelle Offensive, Battle of the Some, doctors on the front, General Haig.
Hungary and WWI
USE THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SEARCH MACHINE AND GO TO HUNGARY.Then read the following articles:
"Political and Economic Life, 1905-19," "The Dual Monarchy," "The Balkan Wars," "The Final Years of the Empire," "Hungarian Soviet Republic Counterrevolution," and "World War I." Then go on and click to the "Next Pages."
- Atlas: Turkey/Ottoman Empire
Poland and WWI
USE THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SEARCH MACHINE AND GO TO Poland.
Then read the following articles:
"War and the Polish Lands," and "Recovery of Statehood." Then go on and click to the "Next Pages."
Romania - WWI
USE THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SEARCH MACHINE AND GO TO ROMANIA. Then read the following articles
"The Balkan Wars and World War," "The Romanian Army in WWI," and "Greater Romania and the Occupation of Budapest." Then go on and click to the "Next Pages."
USE THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SEARCH MACHINE AND GO TO RUSSIA.
Then read the following articles
"Last Years of Tsardom," "Revolution of 1905 and Counterrevolution, 1905-07."
"Return to an Active Balkan Policy, 1906-13" and "Tenuous Regimes of Stolypin and Kokovstev, 1907-14."
"Russia at War, 1914-16" and "The Strains of the War Effort and the Weakening of Tsarism."
Then go on and click to the "Next Pages."
Trenches on the Web - Atlas: Russia/USSR
Dr. Norman Stone, Oxford University and the revolutionaries, Rasputin, Nicholas, Alexandra, Russian involvement.
Robert Massie and the Russians
Author Robert Massie: hemophilia, Rasputin, Kaiser Wilhelm, ship building, Alexandra, the redemption of Nicholas and Alexandra, and the shaping of the 20th Century.
Great War: Interviews - WWI and Russia
Dr. Orlando Figes of Cambridge on the Battle of Tannenberg, the Russian Revolution, Rasputin, the Bread Riot, Kerensky, storming the Winter Palace, and the Tsar's General Staff.
Path to Revolution
The Russian Revolution: One of the Better Web Sites on the Revolution
Trotsky, Leon (1879-1940)
Trotsky and the Fate of Socialism in the 20th Century (detailed, academic article) and Trotsky, a decent, interesting, fairly brief bio.
USE THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SEARCH MACHINE AND GO TO SERBIA.
Then read the "Balkan Wars and World War I," and "Formation of the South Slav State." Then go on and click to the "Next Pages."
Trenches on the Web - Atlas: Kingdom of Serbia
PROFESSOR'S SPECIAL INTERESTS
WILSON AND THE WAR, THE PEACE
- Bio: President Thomas Woodrow Wilson
- Woodrow Wilson
- Hope of a different world.
- World War I, President Woodrow Wilson's War Message
- Admiral Scheer: Germany's High Sea Fleet in WWI
- On-line version of Scheer's post war book. Scheer commanded the entire German High Seas Fleet.
- The Balkan Wars and WWI
- Both had dramatic consequences for the South Slavs. Solid article from the Army Area Handbook.
- Collapse of the Central Powers
- Historical summary. Collapse of Bulgaria, Turkey, End of the Hapsburg monarchy, Czechs declare independence, Yugoslav National Council proclaims independence, armistice concluded, proclamations of austria and Hungary. The last push, capitulation. World War Losses. About 10 million men dead, 20 million wounded. Russia lost the most.
- Socialism and the War - Robert Wohl, Univ. of California
- Trenches on the Web - Special: The Organization of the German Army, 1914-1918
PEACE AND THE TREATIES
- A Reevaluation of the Peace Treaty - Critical Article
World War I, Reichstag Peace Resolution
Great War: Interviews - Mommsen: The Versailles Treaty
- Great War: Interviews - Winter: The Versailles Treaty
- Versailles Treaty
- The 1919 Treaty of 440 articles. Viewable in total or by sections.
- Documents relating to the Treaty of Trianon, 1920
ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
- Great War in Numbers
- Timeline: 1914-1918 - Casualty Figures
- Disillusionment of Peace - Robert Wohl, Historian.
- WWI as Unfinished Business - Sir Michael Howard, Yale.
- Effects of War - Bernd Huppauf, NY University.
THE ORIGINAL DOCUMENT ARCHIVES
- EuroDocs: Western European Primary Historical Documents
- Primary Documents: Germany
The stunning student Teaching Assistants who have assisted the courses and helped catalyze the quality of the student work at Foothill
Those remarkable humans across Eastern Europe who have struggled, perserved, grown in stature in the midst of decades of unspeakable abuse; the many survivors of the Holocaust who I have counted as my friends for so many years and to whom I owe so much; and to the 6000 students who have studied the Holocaust, Nazi Germany, and Eastern Europe in seminar with me for 30 years.
HOPE YOU ENJOYED THIS PAGE. THANKS TO:
I created this site for folks in the Web World who enjoy history as much as I do: the "public," history buffs, students, faculty. I have tried to be intensely aware of others' work and respect copyrights. I wanted this site to be available for public use, personally or in a classroom - and as a resource for teachers at all levels. Thus no passwords are required. I only ask that if you refer your students to this site from yours, that you credit us properly for the years of work this entailed.
GRAPHICS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: I remain in awe of the talent and skill of the accomplished Web graphic artists who devote so much ability to making the Web such a special place. While I have made many of my own graphics, I have used "good" ones from others. It is difficult, however, to know who created what. I would like to thank and highlight every artist whose work I have used.
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